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Processus de la retraite et carrière atypique au Canada

TitleProcessus de la retraite et carrière atypique au Canada
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsPurenne, J.
UniversityUniversité de Montréal
CityMontréal, QC
Keywordsadultes, âgés, aging, atypique, baby-boomers, bridge employment, career, carrière, emploi, labor force, marché du travail, older adults, post-retirement, post-retraite, précaire, process, processus, retirement, retraite, stable, transition, vieillissement
Abstract

Depuis le milieu du 20e siècle, la mondialisation de l’économie a favorisé le développement d’emplois précaires, souvent temporaires et offrant peu de sécurité d’emploi. Au Canada, plus du tiers des travailleurs nés entre 1945 et 1950 n’ont jamais connu un épisode d’emploi de plus de 11 ans. À ce jour, aucune étude canadienne ne s’était penchée sur le processus de la retraite des travailleuses et travailleurs qui ont mené une carrière que l’on peut qualifier d’atypique. Ce manque dans la littérature pourrait mener à une interprétation erronée de ce qui se passe dans le marché du travail des adultes âgés. Notre étude chercher à déterminer si le processus de la retraite des personnes qui ont mené une carrière atypique avant l’âge de 50 ans est différent de ceux qui ont connu une carrière stable. Nos résultats confirment que le processus de la retraite diffère selon le type de carrière au Canada : les personnes qui ont mené une carrière atypique sont plus susceptibles de commencer au moins un nouvel emploi avant la retraite, alors que les individus qui ont eu une carrière stable ont plus de chance de partir à la retraite sans faire de transition avant la retraite. L’analyse du calendrier des différents événements qui composent le processus de la retraite, notamment de l’emploi de transition avant la retraite et de la retraite volontaire, nous laisse croire que les personnes à carrière atypique ont davantage tendance à reporter leur retraite. /// Since the mid-20th-century globalization of the economy has lead to a surge in precarious employment (part-time and short-term jobs) leaving many with no stable career. In Canada, about a third of individuals born between 1945 and 1950 never had a spell of employment longer then 11 years. This generation of workers, who had what we could define as « atypical » careers, is now arriving at the age associated with retirement. While many studies on retirement have focused on individuals who have had career jobs, that is a spell of employment of tens years or more, little is known about how people with a history of short terms jobs retire. This may lead to a faulty interpretation of what’s happening to older adults in the labor force, therefore leading to policies that are not well adapted to individuals with atypical careers. This study aims at comparing the process of labor force withdrawals between Canadians with a history of short career with those with career jobs. We focus not only on retirement, but also on bridge employment before and after one has left the labor force. We use a sample of respondents from the General Social Survey (GSS) 2007 that were at least 50 years of age at the time of the survey and had declared to have worked. The sample was stratified according to the type of careers the respondent had before age 50. We find that the process of retirement differs in respect of the type of career. Respondents who had an atypical career had more chances to hold a bridge job before retiring, while respondents that had a stable career were more prone to leave the labor force without any prior transition. Respondents with atypical career were less likely to retire voluntarily but we find no statistical evidence that they are more at risk of involuntary retirement. These findings might suggest that respondents with atypical careers were delaying their retirement at the time of the survey. We find no statistical evidence that the type of careers has an influence on post-retirement employment.

URLhttps://papyrus.bib.umontreal.ca/xmlui/handle/1866/21583 https://www.ciqss.org/en/presentation/processus-de-la-retraite-et-carriere-atypique-au-canada
Document URLhttps://papyrus.bib.umontreal.ca/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1866/21583/Jonathan_Purenne_2018_memoire.pdf