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Predictors of sleep apnea in the Canadian population

TitlePredictors of sleep apnea in the Canadian population
Year of Publication2018
Authorsvan der Spuy, I., Zhao G., Karunanayake C., and Pahwa P.
JournalCanadian Respiratory Journal
Pages1 - 11

Older age, obesity, hypertension, snoring, and excessive daytime sleepiness have been associated with sleep apnea. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence (crude and adjusted), as well as the risk factors, of sleep apnea in the adult Canadian population. Data from the 2009 Sleep Apnea Rapid Response (SARR) questionnaire were used to identify the risk factors, and all sleep-related questions in the SARR questionnaire were used. The outcome variable of interest was health professional-diagnosed sleep apnea. Covariates of interest were demographic variables, population characteristics, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and enabling resources. The multiple logistic regression model adjusted for the clustering effect was used to analyze the data. Sleep apnea was diagnosed in 858,913 adults (3.4% of the population), and more men (65.4%) than women (34.6%) were diagnosed with sleep apnea. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that age (45 and older), loud snoring, sudden awakening with gasping/choking (rare/sometimes and once or more a week), and nodding off/falling asleep in driving in the past 12 months were significantly associated with diagnosed sleep apnea. Predictive probability demonstrated that in overweight and obese persons, =>15 minutes of daily exercise significantly decreased the risk of diagnosed sleep apnea. The conclusion of this study is that in the Canadian population, sleep apnea is associated with older age, loud snoring, and sleeping problems. The protective effect of exercise warrants further investigation.

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