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Muslims' social inclusion and exclusion in France, Quebec and Canada: Does national context matter

TitleMuslims' social inclusion and exclusion in France, Quebec and Canada: Does national context matter
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsReitz, J. G., Simon P., and Laxer E.
JournalJournal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Volume43
Pages2473 - 2498
Keywordscanada, france, immigrant integration, muslim, quebec
Abstract

This article compares the social experiences of Muslim minorities in three contexts – France, Québec, and English Canada – each reflecting a different approach to immigrant integration. France's republican model emphasises cultural assimilation and the exclusion of religion from the public sphere; Canada's multicultural model advocates official recognition of minority cultures; Québec shares Canada's tradition of large-scale permanent immigration but embodies a unique intercultural discourse of integration, in some ways resembling France. We compare the social experiences of Muslim and non-Muslim minorities in these three settings using the French 'Trajectories and Origins' survey (2009) and the Canadian 'Ethnic Diversity Survey' (2002) data on reports of discrimination, friendship networks, social trust, voluntarism, and national identity. We find the Muslim/non-Muslim gap in social inclusion is significant in all three settings and results from ethnic, cultural, or racial differences, more than religion. In assessing immigrants' social inclusion, we suggest consideration be given to: (i) the reality of 'national models' in the community, (ii) a tendency for minorities to locate in more accepting segments of mainstream society, and (iii) the limited impact of policies based on national models.

URLhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1369183X.2017.1313105
DOI10.1080/1369183X.2017.1313105
Document URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369183X.2017.1313105