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Calcium intake from food and supplemental sources decreased in the Canadian population from 2004 to 2015

TitleCalcium intake from food and supplemental sources decreased in the Canadian population from 2004 to 2015
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsVatanparast, H., Islam N., Patil R. Prakash, Shafiee M., and Whiting S. J.
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Pages833 - 841
Keywordscalcium, calcium intake, calcium supplement, canadians, central, congenital, diet, food, hypoventilation, milk, national cancer institute, prevalence of inadequacy, science of nutrition, supplement use, usual intake

Background In light of the publications (2008-2014) linking calcium intake, mainly from supplements, to the elevated risk of cardiovascular events, there is a need to determine if there have been any changes in usual intakes of calcium among Canadians. Objective We aimed to examine changes in dietary and total usual intake of calcium among Canadians aged =>1 y over the period 2004-2015. Methods We used nutrition data from 2 nationally representative surveys conducted in 2004 and 2015 (CCHS 2004 Cycle 2.2 and CCHS-Nutrition 2015). This study included all the Canadians across 10 provinces, and the analyses were performed across different age/sex groups. We used the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method to estimate the usual intake of calcium and the prevalence of calcium inadequacy. Multiple logistic regression was performed to assess the relation between supplement uses and sociodemographic variables. Results From 2004 to 2015, the usual intake of calcium from food sources significantly decreased in calcium supplement nonusers (from 872 +/- 18.2 mg/d to 754 +/- 18.0 mg/d), but not in calcium supplement users. The contribution of calcium from the Milk and alternatives food group significantly decreased by 7.5% and 6.1% in calcium supplement users and nonusers, respectively. The prevalence of calcium supplement use significantly decreased from 2004 to 2015 in the Canadian population, from 27.5% to 22.0%. During this time, the percentage contribution of calcium from supplemental sources significantly decreased among Canadians, especially women. The prevalence of calcium inadequacy increased from 58.0% to 68.0% in supplement nonusers; however, among users of calcium supplements, the prevalence of calcium inadequacy remained at  31%. Conclusions Calcium intake from both food and supplemental sources decreased in the Canadian population over an 11-y period, which must be addressed by policy-makers in their efforts to decrease the high prevalence of calcium inadequacy.

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