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Black-White health inequalities in Canada at the intersection of gender and immigration

TitleBlack-White health inequalities in Canada at the intersection of gender and immigration
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsPatterson, A. C., and Veenstra G..
JournalCanadian Journal of Public Health
Volume107
Pagese278 - e284
Keywordsblack, body mass index, canada, gender, health behaviours, immigration, intersectionality, racial health inequalities, socioeconomic status, white
Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Intersectionality theory proposes that each combination of social categories derived from gender, race and nationality, such as immigrant White man or native-born Black woman, is associated with unique social experiences. We tested the potential of intersectionality theory for explicating racial inequalities in Canada by investigating whether Black-White health inequalities are conditioned by gender and immigrant status in a synergistic way. METHODS: Our dataset comprised 10 cycles (2001-2013) of the Canadian Community Health Survey. We used binary logistic regression to model Black-White inequalities in hypertension, diabetes, self-rated health, self-rated mental health and asthma separately for native-born women, native-born men, immigrant women and immigrant men. RESULTS: After controlling for potentially confounding factors we found that immigrant Black women had significantly higher odds of hypertension, diabetes and fair/poor self-rated health than immigrant White women. Native-born Black women and immigrant Black men had higher odds of hypertension and diabetes than native-born White women and immigrant White men respectively, and native-born White women were more likely than native-born Black women to report asthma. There were no statistically significant health differences between native-born Black and White men. Socio-economic status, smoking, physical activity and body mass index were implicated in some but not all of these racial health inequalities. None of the three-way interactions between racial identity, gender and immigration status was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: We found relatively high risks of ill health for Black Canadians in three of the four samples. Overall, however, we found little support for the intersectional hypothesis that Black-White health inequalities in Canada are conditioned by gender and immigrant status in a synergistic way.

URLhttp://search.proquest.com/openview/00ec6f29e85f6713050760cc3f41411b/1
DOI10.17269/CJPH.107.5336
Document URLhttps://journal.cpha.ca/index.php/cjph/article/download/5336/3444