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A population-based birth cohort study of the association between childhood-onset asthma and exposure to industrial air pollutant emissions

TitleA population-based birth cohort study of the association between childhood-onset asthma and exposure to industrial air pollutant emissions
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsButeau, S., Doucet M., Tétreault L-F., Gamache P., Fournier M., Brand A., Kosatsky T., and Smargiassi A.
JournalEnvironment International
Volume121
Pages23 - 30
Keywordsair pollution, asthma, children, cohort study, fine particles, industry, sulfur dioxide
Abstract

Background Studies of the association between air pollution and asthma onset have mostly focused on urban and traffic-related air pollution. We investigated the associations between exposure to industrial emissions and childhood-onset asthma in a population-based birth cohort in Quebec, Canada, 2002–2011. Methods The cohort was built from administrative health databases. We developed separately for PM2.5 and SO2 different metrics representing children's time-varying residential exposure to industrial emissions: 1) yearly number of tons of air pollutant emitted by industries located within 2.5km of the residence; 2) distance to the nearest "major emitter" (=>100 tons) of either PM2.5 and SO2 within 7.5km of the residence, and; 3) tons of air pollutant emitted by the nearest "major emitter" within 7.5km, weighted by the inverse of the distance and the percentage of time that the residence was downwind. To handle the large number of zeros (i.e., children unexposed) we decomposed the exposure variable into two covariates simultaneously included in the regression model: a binary indicator of exposure and a continuous exposure variable centered at the mean value among exposed children. We performed Cox models using age as the time axis, adjusted for gender, material and social deprivation and calendar year. We indirectly adjusted for unmeasured secondhand smoke. Results The cohort included 722,667 children and 66,559 incident cases of asthma. Across the different exposure metrics, mean percentage changes in the risk of asthma onset in children exposed to the mean relative to those unexposed ranged from 4.5% (95% CI: 2.8, 6.3%) to 10.6% (95% CI: 6.2, 15.2%) for PM2.5 and, from 1.1% (95% CI: -0.1, 3.3%) to 8.9% (95% CI: 7.1, 11.1%) for SO2. Indirect adjustment for secondhand smoke did not substantially affect the associations. In children exposed, the risk of asthma onset increased with the magnitude of the exposure for all metrics, except the distance to the nearest major emitter of SO2. Conclusions In this population-based birth cohort, residential exposure to industrial air pollutant emissions was associated with childhood-onset asthma. Additional studies with improved models for estimating exposure to industrial point-sources are needed to further support the observed associations.

URLhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016041201830535X
DOI10.1016/j.envint.2018.08.040
Document URLhttps://bit.ly/2Cm5eQwhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412018326941/pdfft